The Aswan High Dam was built across the River Nile in Aswan between 1960 and 1970. The dam was built as a direct response to the success of the Low Dam, which was built in 1902. Construction of the High Dam became the main objective from the government following the Egyptian Revolution in 1952. The old dam was not sufficient to control the annual flooding of the Nile. Although the Nile waters were rich in natural minerals which enriched the soil, the river often destroyed the crops or caused droughts. After the High Dam was constructed, certain things improved.

The dam's main function was protection against droughts and flooding – these two factors helped in boosting the agricultural area. It also increased electricity production. However, there were few drawbacks of the dam.

One of them was the affect on archeological sites, which were submerged or had to be relocated because of the dam.